abstract syntax tree

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An abstract syntax tree (AST) is a hierarchical tree-like structure that represents the syntax of a computer language. This produced tree-like structure is used by compilers and interpreters to better convert code into something the computer can further understand.

Use cases and Examples

Here is a mathematical example: 5+(10*2)

Now the AST of the above statement should look something like the figure below.

Figure 1

Note how we don’t care about the brackets, because what we’re saying here (reading from the root node ie: the top) is:

  • The first thing we’re doing is adding something together.
  • The left side of our addition is the number 5.
  • The right side of our addition is the result of multiplying something.
  • The left side of our multiplication is 10.
  • The right side of our multiplication is 2.

With this visual breakdown, a computer can execute meaningful microinstructions and by the time it's done would have achieved the overall instruction set.


Abstract syntax trees are used to represent the structure of a program’s source code for the compiler or interpreter to use.

ASTs are also used in transpilers thus translating the syntax of one language to another. For example when transpiling TypeScript to Javascript.

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